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sewage treatment plant

Sewage treatment (or domestic wastewater treatment, municipal wastewater treatment)

Sewage treatment is a type of wastewater treatment which aims to remove contaminants from sewage to produce an effluent that is suitable for discharge to the surrounding environment or an intended reuse application, thereby preventing water pollution from raw sewage discharges This chapter provides suggestions of how such an ETP may be designed and discusses the advantages and disadvantages. Three models are used for this, a purely biological ETP, a physico-chemical ETP and an ETP that combines all three. This chapter does not prescribe one particular design and there are many other ways of combining the operations and processes described in Chapter 3 thatwould also be highly effective.

A large number of sewage treatment technologies have been developed, mostly using biological treatment processes. Engineers and decision makers need to take into account technical and economical criteria, as well as quantitative and qualitative aspects of each alternative when choosing a suitable technology. Often, the main criteria for selection are: desired effluent quality, expected construction and operating costs, availability of land, energy requirements and aspects.

Technologies Used

1.  ASP : Activated Sludge Process

2.  MBBR : Moving Bed Bio reactor

3.  SAFF : Submerged aerated Fixed Film

4.  SBR : Sequential Bioreactor

5.  MBR : Membrane Bio Reactor

Sewage Treatment Plant process

Sewage can be treated by designing a sewage treatment plant (STP) which involves three stages: primary/preliminary, secondary and tertiary.

Primary treatment

In a sewage treatment plant, sewage water is first allowed to pass through screens or grit chamber where large solids are removed. This step is followed by aeration/mixing in a tank and then primary sedimentation where suspended solids settle down. Primary treatment involves addition of a coagulant and aims at removing grits, coarse solids, oil and grease if any present.

Secondary or biological treatment

This stage converts organic matter in sewage into stable forms through biological activities, resulting in secondary sedimentation. Common approaches are trickling filters and activated sludge method. Trickling filters comprise an enclosed tank with a bed of bricks and a layer of microorganisms. The effluent enters the tank through an inlet and trickles over the bed layer by sprinklers. Microbial activities oxidize the organic matter in the effluent, resulting in the removal of fine solids, formation of sludge and an effluent with less organic solids.

Tertiary treatment

The effluent then undergoes tertiary treatment/disinfection by incorporation of UV radiation or chlorination. Other methods such as sand filters and reverse osmosis may also be used instead for this stage of treatment, depending upon the nature of the sewage and the effluent from secondary treatment.

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